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Invited Article
2 (
Suppl_1
); 7-11
doi:
10.25259/JRHM_28_2020

Renin-angiotensin system: A possible clue for gender bias in coronavirus disease 2019 infection

Department of Molecular Reproduction, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
Corresponding author: Malini Laloraya, Department of Molecular Reproduction, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. laloraya@rgcb.res.in
Licence
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.
How to cite this article: Padmanabhan RA, Laloraya M. Reninangiotensin system: A possible clue for gender bias in coronavirus disease 2019 infection. J Reprod Healthc Med 2021;2(Suppl_1):S7-S11.

Abstract

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has been declared as a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. Previous history of viral infections such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and SARS-CoV had shown high risk for maternal and neonates, with vertical transmission (VT) and perinatal as well as maternal mortality; hence, the possibility of the same cannot be ruled out in case of COVID-19. Authors’ literature survey on Scopus/Embase/ PubMed/Google using the terms “COVID-19* and pregnancy, VT, and gender difference in COVID-19 infection. All the relevant literatures were included in this review. Like other respiratory infections made by coronavirusesMERS-CoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV), the Viral spike of SARS-Cov-2 catches angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) (a part of renin angiotensin system [RAS]) to enter the body. For those with risk factors, namely, cardiovascular complications, diabetes, and respiratory disorders, this entry is fatal We suggest that pregnancy is a well-orchestrated event capable of tackling COVID-19 infection by virtue of its hormone dependency which is capable of curbing the cytokine storm despite increased ACE2 expression. This review summarizes the gender bias of RAS; importance of RAS in pregnancy and sex hormonal influence on COVID-19 infection.

Keywords

Coronavirus disease 2019
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
ACE2
Pregnancy
Renin-angiotensin system

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